States of India:Assam

Assam

       ASSAM

India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions. India became a democratic country on 15th August 1947, after its independence. All the decisions are made by the representatives chosen by the people under a set of fundamental rules called the “Constitution”.

The Constitution is the supreme law of the country and was affirmed by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949. It came into action on 26 January 1950.

The Preamble of the Indian Constitution guarantees it to be a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular and Democratic Republic with a parliamentary system of government. Currently, there are 28 states and 8 Union Territories in India.

The States Reorganization Act, formed in 1956 was a prime force in reorganizing the margins of Indian states along semantic lines.

This page contains all important general knowledge points on Indian state, Assam which will help in preparation of national and state level exams.

Assam is a state in north-eastern India known for its wildlife, archeological sites and tea plantations. In the west, Guwahati, Assam’s largest city, features silk bazaars and the hilltop Kamakhya Temple. Umananda Temple sits on Peacock Island in the Brahmaputra river.

Assam shares its borders with Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura, and West Bengal.

Assam shares international borders with Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Bhutan.

  • Formed on -1st November,1956
  • Capital -Dispur
  • Governor - Prof. Jagadish Mukhi

  • Chief minister -Himanta Biswa Sarma
  • Population - 3.09 crores
  • High Court –Guwahati
  • State Animal -One horned Rhinoceras
  • State Bird -White-winged wood duck
  • State Flower -Foxtail Orchids
  • No: of Districts -33

Basic Information

  • Tea garden of India
  • Land of red rivers and blue hills
  • The Gateway of North Eastern states.
  • Most populated state among the North East India.
  • Leading producer of tea in India.
  • The state is previously known as ‘Kamarupa’.
  • The state having a high maternal mortality rate.
  • First state in India legally banned smokeless tobacco.
  • First Indian state to observe child protection day.
  • T’ shaped state in India.

Guwahati

  • The largest city in North East India.
  • Guwahati is known as the light of the east.
  • The High Court of India having a large number of states under jurisdiction is Guwahati High Court.
  • The earlier name of Guwahati was Pragjyotishpur.
  • Pragjyotishpur was built by the king Narakasur.
  • Lokpriya Gopinath Bardolio International Airport is in Guwahati.
  • Umananda temple is a famous temple located in Guwahati.

More Information about Assam

  • Assam Rifles is the first Paramilitary force established in 1835.
  • Former name of Assam Rifles was Cachar Levi.
  • Assam Rifles is known as ‘Friends of the Hill People'.
  • It is also known as Sentinels of the North East.
  • India’s first co-operative University is established in Assam.
  • Majuli is the largest riverine island in the world which is in Assam.
  • Majuli lies on the river Brahmaputra.
  • The river Brahmaputra is known as the sorrow of Assam.
  • Digboi is the oldest oil refinery in India which is in Assam.
  • Jorhat is the cultural capital of Assam.
  • Sualkuchi is known as the Manchester of Assam.
  • British rule introduced in Assam by Yandabooo treaty.
  • The treaty of Yandaboo signed between EastIndia Company and King of Burma in 1826.
  • ULFA (United Liberation Front of Assam) terrorist group is existing in Assam state.
  • Assam is famous for the production of Muga silk.
  • Sylhet was a former district of Assam, and it was added to East Pakistan (Bangladesh) through a referendum.
  • Lokpriya Gopinath Bardoloi was the first Chief Minister of Assam and he was the first person in North East Indian states to get Bharat Ratna posthumously.
  • Syeda Anwara Taimur was the first Woman Chief Minister of Assam.She was the first Muslim woman Chief Minister of Assam.
  • Hajo is famous for the pilgrimage of Hindu, Muslim and Buddhist.
  • Bihu is an important dance festival of Assam.
  • The state Assam decided to a separate time zone known as the ‘Tea Garden time’ that is one hour ahead of IST.
  • Bodoland is a proposed state in India consisting areas located in Assam.
  • The commission appointed to study the demand for Bodoland is GK Pillai Committee.
  • Bodo’ language is a popular language in Assam.
  • Sattriya is the classical dance of Assam.
  • Husari Dance is also popular in Assam.
  • Namrup Thermal Power Station is in Assam.
  • Haflong is the only hill station in Assam where one can see the rainbow down below.
  • Vivek Express connects Dibrugarh in Assam and Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu.
  • Vivek Express is started to commemorate the 150th birth anniversary of Swami Vivekananda.
  • Kaziranga National Park is famous for one horned Rhinoceros.
  • Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is famous for its bright coloured wild horses (feral).
  • Manas National Park protecting rare species like Assam roofed turtle, Golden Langur, Hispid Hare and Pygmy dog.
  • Orang National Park is situated in Assam.
  • Orang National Park is known as mini kaziranga.
  • First Island district in India-Majuli.
  • Guwahati became the first city in India to have its own city animal (gangetic River Dolphin).
  • In North East India, First elephant hospital was established at Kaziranga National Park.
  • Bhupen Hazarika bridge (Dhola-Sadiya bridge) across the Brahamaputra river is the longest bridge in India.
  • The leader of the revolt of 1857 in Assam was maniram.

Famous Personalities in Assam

  • Indira Goswami-Jnanpith winner
  • Sarbananda Sonawal- Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports.
  • Ambikagiri Raichoudhury –Literature.
  • Seema Biswas-Bollywood Actress.
  • Nalini Bala Devi-Writer.
  • Bhupen Hazarika-Musician
  • Bhupen Hazarika is known as ‘The Bard of Brahmaputra’.
  • Kanakalata Barua was an Indian freedom fighter from Assam who was shot dead during the Quit India Movement of 1942.

Wild Life Sanctuaries

  • Chakrashila
  • LawKhowa.
  • Deepor Beel
  • Garampani
  • Nambor

National Parks

  1. Manas-Located in the Himalayan foothill bhabar area in the western Assam, Manas was originally a game reserve since 1928 and became a Tiger Reserve in 1974, a World Heritage Site in 1985, a Biosphere Reserve in 1989. It was declared as a National Park in 1990 with an area of 500 sq. kms. It is also the core area of 2600 sq. kms. of Chirang Ripu Elephant Reserve.
  2. Rajiv Gandhi Orang-An abode of Rhinoceros, Tiger, Maljuria Elephants (male elephants in group), Hog Deer, Wild Pig, Civet Cat, Porcupine and Gangetic Dolphin and an important breeding ground for varieties of Fishes.
  3. Dibru-Saikhowa-It is a National Park as well as a Biosphere Reserve.
  4. Kaziranga-The Park is the abode to more than 70% of One Horned Rhinoceros in the world.
  5. Nameri National Park

Famous Festivals of Assam

1. Bihu Festival - The Famous Festival of Assam

Comprises of 3 festivals Rongali, Magh, and Kati Bihu, this celebration brings the people of Assam together, irrespective of caste, religion, creed, gender, or race.

Rongali Bihu- is celebrated in April, marking the new harvest season coinciding with the new year with respect to the Hindu Calendar.

Kati Bihu- celebrates in October, is practised to protect the crops and pray for a good harvest at the end of the season. Their animals are also prayed to and fed special preparations of food.

Bhogali Bihu ('Bhog' meaning food)- is celebrated during the second week of January, marking the harvest season's end. During this time is when the granaries are filled up again with crops. Events such as bullfights, cockfights, and egg fights are common games played by the rural folk in this festival.

2. Ambubachi Festival

The festival, organized for a span of four days, brings out the Tantric culture practised in many parts of Assam. The legend behind this unique fair states that Goddess Kamakhya goes through her menstrual cycle for the first three days of the festivities. 

This follows strict restrictions by the devotees who do not take a bath or cook a meal. People even refrain from reading holy books or performing Puja during these three consecutive days.

3. Majuli Festival

The Brahmaputra ,also known as the Yarlung Tsangpo in Tibet, the Siang/Dihang River in Arunachal Pradesh, and Luit, Dilao in Assam, is a trans-boundary river which flows through Tibet, India, and Bangladesh.

 It is the 9th largest river in the world by discharge, and the 15th longest. Majuli is a river island in the Brahmaputra River.

River Luit becomes the host of the festival with preparations of the customaries taking place at its bank. Traditional troupes from different parts of the country also come down here to showcase their culture through the versatile talents that they possess.

4. Dehing Patkai Festival

The state hosts a wide variety of cultural and adventure sports like kayaking, parasailing and angling. It is not just about the sports and colours and celebrations but also insists on observing the necessity for saving the Elephants.

5. Tea Festival

Ranked second worldwide for its production of teas, Assam celebrates the festival to glorify their authentic and tasteful tea production. 

 The city of Jorhat, known as the Tea Capital of the world, masters the ceremonies of the festival during the month of November.

Jorhat is an administrative district of the Indian state of Assam situated in the central part of the Brahmaputra Valley.

6. Ras Lila in Majuli

This festival is a celebration of the life of Lord Krishna. The people of Majuli are intense devotees of Lord Krishna.

7. Karam Puja

A sacred festival for the tea growing tribal communities of Assam, the Karam Puja is celebrated to please Karam tree. The Karam tree which represents Karam Devta, the god of youth and power, is worshipped by the people.

8. Baishagu Festival

The Baishagu festival marks the beginning of the new year. It is observed in the month of Bohag (April) of the Assamese calendar. Similar to other festivals celebrated to welcome the new year.

9.Me-Dum-Me-Phi

The most important Ahom festival which deserves mention is the Me-Dum-Me-Phi, i.e., the ancestor worship festival which is observed by the whole Ahom community. This is performed annually on the 31st of January and helps to develop social contacts and community feelings among the Ahoms.

Ahoms-an ethnic group from the Indian states of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.

Major Tribes in Assam

Moran Community, Koch Rajbongshi, Tea Tribes ,Chakma, Chutiya, Dimasa, Hajong, Garos, Khasis, Gangte, Karbi, Boro(Bodo), Borokachari, Kachari, Sonwal, Miri, Rabha, Garo.

UNESCO World Heritage sites in Assam

There are two World Heritage UNESCO sites are in Assam - Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary and Manas Wildlife Sanctuary.


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