States of India:Bihar(Land of Vihars)



India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions. India became a democratic country on 15th August 1947, after its independence. All the decisions are made by the representatives chosen by the people under a set of fundamental rules called the “Constitution”.

The Constitution is the supreme law of the country and was affirmed by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949. It came into action on 26 January 1950.

The Preamble of the Indian Constitution guarantees it to be a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular and Democratic Republic with a parliamentary system of government. Currently, there are 28 states and 8 Union Territories in India.

The States Reorganization Act, formed in 1956 was a prime force in reorganizing the margins of Indian states along semantic lines.

This page contains all important general knowledge points on Indian state, Bihar  which will help in preparation of national and state level exams.

Bihar is a state in East India which bordering with Nepal. It is divided by the River Ganges, which floods its fertile plains. Important Buddhist pilgrimage sites include the Bodhi Tree in Bodhgaya's Mahabodhi Temple, under which the Buddha allegedly meditated.

In the state capital Patna, Mahavir Mandir temple is worshiped by Hindus, while Sikhs worship at the domed, riverside Gurdwara of Takht Sri Harmandir Sahib Ji.

  • Formed on -1st November,1956
  • Capital -Patna
  • Governor - Phagu Chauhan

  • Chief minister -Nitish Kumar
  • Population - 9.9 crores
  • High Court –Patna
  • State Animal -OX(Gaur)
  • State Bird -House Sparrow
  • State Flower -Kachnar
  • No: of Districts -38

  • The state is known as the land of Viharas.
  • The state having least literacy rate in India.
  • The 3rd largest state in India by population.
  • Most densely populated state in India.
  • The first state to draw a disaster risk reduction road map.
  • The first state in India to constitute an Agriculture cabinet to address the problems faced by the farmers.
  • Champaran satyagraha was held in this state.
  • The founder of Pataliputra-Udayabhadra(or Udayin (c. 460-444 BCE) )


  • The founder of Patna- Shershah.
  • Loknayak Jayaprakash Narayan Airport is situated at Patna.
  • Headquarters of National Inland Navigation Institute is in Patna.
  • World’s longest free WIFI zone is in Patna.
  • Bihar is the place of origin of two religions- Jainism and Buddhism.
  • Kosi river is known as the sorrow of Bihar.
  • The legislative Assembly of Bihar is bicameral in nature.
  • Bihar is famous for Madhubani painting.
  • The first president of independent India was Dr. Rajendra Prasad who is known as Bihar Gandhi.
  • Mahama Gandhi Setu built across the river Ganga in Bihar.
  • Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary is located in Bihar.
  • Nalanda University is situated in Bihar.
  • Kumaragupta is the founder of Nalanda University.
  • Nalanda University was destroyed by Bakhtiyar Khilji.
  • The first women speaker of Lok Sabha Meira Kumar is born in Bihar.
  • Bodh Gaya in Bihar is the Buddhist destination where Gautam attained enlightenment to become Buddha.
  • The biggest cattle fair of Asia is Sonepur Cattle Fair held in Bihar.
  • The important religious place for Jains is Rajgir situated in Bihar.
  • A.P.J. Abdul Kalam proposed the idea while addressing the joint session of the Bihar Vidhan Mandal for the revival of Nalanda University.
  • Patna is situated on the banks of Ganga.
  • The ancient name of Patna was Pataliputra.
  • The founder of Pataliputra was Udayabhadra.
  • The tomb of Sher Sha is in Sasaram district of Bihar.
  • Jat-Jatin, Kajari, Sohar- Khilouna, Jhumeri are the major dance forms of Bihar.

Wild Life Sanctuary

  • Gautam Buddha
  • Udaypur
  • Rajgir (Pant)
  • Bhimbandh

National Park

  • Valmiki- is a Tiger Reserve in the West Champaran District of Bihar.

Major fairs of Bihar

    • Shravani Mela
    • Sonepur Cattle Fair or Harihar Kshetra Mela- The Sonepur cattle fair, a month-long event starting approximately half a month after Deepawali. Considered the largest cattle fair in Asia, it is held at the junction of the Ganges and Gandak Rivers, in the town of Sonepur.
    • Pitri Paksha Mela- This is a 15-day fair held on the bank of River Falgu at Gaya during Pitru Paksha every year. Pilgrims from all parts of India visit Gaya, offering pinda to honour their ancestors.
    • Shravani Mela- It is held every year in the Hindu month of Shravan (the lunar month of July–August). Pilgrims, known as Kanwarias, wear saffron-coloured clothes and collect water from a sacred Ghat (river bank) at Sultanganj. They walk the 108 km stretch barefoot to the town of Deoghar to bathe a sacred Shiva-Linga.
    • Nag Panchmi

    • Makar Sankranti Mela

Major festivals of bihar

    • Chhath Mahaparv- Chhath, also called "Dala Chhath", Surya vrat, is an ancient and major Vedic festival celebrated in Bihar. It is celebrated twice a year: once in the summers, called the Chaiti Chhath, and once around a week after Deepawali, called the Karthik Chhath.
    • Durga Puja- It is celebrated for ten days. People perform fasts during festival and married women perform 'saanjh' which means sandhya aarti and "khoecha" is given to goddess by women because it is a tradition in Bihar that when a daughter comes to her father's house 'khoecha' is given to her by her mother and it is believed that goddess Durga comes to her maayka from her sasural every year.
    • Saraswati Puja- It is the one of the major festivals in Bihar which is performed by students and also in many households. In this festival, students offer their books and study materials as well as musical instruments in front of goddess Saraswathi who is believed to be the goddess of knowledge and wisdom.

Other local festivals celebrated in Bihar include:

Sama Chakeva

• Jivitputrika

• Teej

• Bihula-Bishari Puja (celebrated in the Anga region of Bihar)

• Buddha Purnima

• Diwali.

• Holi

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Bihar

  • Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara at Nalanda,Bihar(or Nalanda University)-become a UNESCO world heritage site in 2016.
  • Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya - The Mahabodhi Temple Complex is one of the four holy sites related to the life of the Lord Buddha, and particularly to the attainment of Enlightenment.

           Mahabodhi Temple became a UNESCO world heritage site in 2002.

Major tribes of bihar

  1.  Asur
  2. Baiga
  3. Birhor
  4. Birjia
  5. Chero
  6. Gond
  7.  Parhaiya
  8.  Santhals
  9. Savar
  10. Kharwar
  11.  Banjara
  12. Oraon
  13. Santal
  14. Tharu
  15.  The Mundas
  16. Binjhia.
  17. Ho.


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