Babur was succeeded to the Mughal throne by?

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Medieval History-Question 19

Babur was succeeded to the Mughal throne by?,cgl previous year question,previous year paper ssc Indian History gk questions with answers in english on Medieval Period

Important previous year paper gk questions with answers in English on humayun and his battles, humayun tomb,Babur was succeeded to the Mughal throne by Humayun.

19. Babur was succeeded to the Mughal throne by?
A. Sher Shah
B. Akbar
C. Humayun
D. Bahadur Shah

Humayun



Note: Humayun succeeded his father, Babur at the young age of 23 years, when he occupied the throne, he found himself surrounded by the enemies on all sides.

In the East were Mahmud Lodhi and other Afghans under Sher Khan. In the South was Sultan Bahadur Shah, the ruler of Gujarat and in the North-West Kamran, the younger brother of Humayun.

Nasir-ud-Din MuḼammad better known by his regnal name, Humayun ,was the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled over territory in what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan, Northern India, and Bangladesh from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556.

Humayun lost Mughal territories to Sher Shah Suri, but regained them 15 years later with the help of Safavid dynasty . Humayun's return from Persia was accompanied by a large group of advisers of Persian noblemen and signalled an important change in Mughal court culture. The Central Asian origins of the dynasty were largely overshadowed by the influences of Persian art, architecture, language, and literature. There are many stone carvings and thousands of Persian manuscripts in India dating from the time of Humayun.

Humayun's tomb, built in 1570, is of particular cultural significance as it was the first garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent. It inspired several major architectural innovations, culminating in the construction of the Taj Mahal.

Humayun's tomb is the tomb of the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Delhi, India. The tomb was commissioned by Humayun's first wife and chief consort, Empress Bega Begum, in 1558, and designed by Mirak Mirza Ghiyas and his son, Sayyid Muhammad, Persian architects chosen by her.

Humayun’s Tomb was built  with the patronage of Humayun’s son, the great Emperor Akbar. Persian and Indian craftsmen worked together to build the garden-tomb, far grander than any tomb built before in the Islamic world. Humayun’s garden-tomb is an example of the charbagh (a four quadrant garden with the four rivers of Quranic paradise represented), with pools joined by channels.

Humayun’s garden-tomb is also called the ‘dormitory of the Mughals’ as in the cells are buried over 150 Mughal family members.

Humayun fought two battles with Sher Shah Suri and was ultimately deafeated: Battle of Chausa (AD 1539) Battle of Kannauj (AD 1540)

Battles of Humayun

1. Battle of Hissar Firoza (26 February 1526): An eighteen-year-old Humayun made his debut in the theatre of war with a decisive win over his Afghan opponent Hamid Khan in the region of Hisar Firoza (now in present-day Haryana , India). Later, Babur gifted the region to Humayun and he on his own coronation to Kamran, his younger half-brother.The region held enormous vital worth during the hour of the early Gurkhani officials for the street it had associating Delhi to Afghanistan – from where the Gurkanis enrolled their essential manpower.


2. First Battle of Panipat (12 April 1526): after a month in the battle that prepared for Gurkani supremacy in Hindustan, Humayun upheld by his father's believed commanders frames the inward conservative of the military. The battle is recorded to have been won by early afternoon, despite the Afghans outnumbering the Gurkhanis by 1 to 10. Babur's utilization of guns is supposed to be have been one of the crucial factors in the decisive outcome.

3. Attack of Agra (4 May 1526): around the same time, on the sets of his father, Babur, Humayun continues to the region of Agra, the second capital of the Afghans and lays attack to the post anticipating his father's appearance.  The prince stayed outside the town, monitoring the streets and keeping his soldiers from ravaging the occupants.

During the attack, he overcame the powers of the King of Gwalior Bikramjit (a partner of the Afghans). The group of the vanquished offers him the legendary Kohinoor precious stone in appreciation for saving their lives. Humayun presented the precious stone to his father, yet the official in his liberality has permited him to hold it.

4. Battle of Kanpur (1526): In order to reduce his father's burden, Humayun volunteers to go east to the region of Kanpur to smash Afghan resistance. Alarmed by their rivals, the Afghans of Kanpur escape at seeing the Gurkani powers permitting Humayun to seek after them for near 200km. Humayun stays in Kanpur for some time catching the district of Janpura and starts placating exchanges wanting to prevail upon however many Afghan aristocrats as could be allowed. He is to some extent fruitful.

5. Battle of Khanwah (1527): Recalled back by Babur to build up the primary armed force in the battle against the fearless Rajput lord, Rana Sunga, Humayun by and by structures Babur's conservative.

The battle of Khanwah is noted for Babur's well known demonstration of breaking the wine cups and vow to go without liquor as a trade-off for a lucky triumph. Rana Sunga at first losses the Gurkani vanguard yet in the former hard-battled experience, the Gurkanis win the day – breaking the picture of the military ability of the Rajputs, up until recently viewed as powerful.

6. Triumph of Hisar and Qabadian (1529): The reluctance of Humayun's Badakhshani troops to remain in India prompts Babur to move Humayun, their leader, to Badakhshan (Afghanistan). One more justification behind Babur's choice in moving Humayun to the far off station is suspected to be Babur's ground breaking strategy for the success of Central Asia particularly Samarkand (his loved dream).

An arrangement that he wanted to achieve by situating Humayun in Badakhshan and his stepbrother Kamran in Kabul for mounting offensives. Confirming the truth of the matter is Humayun's triumph of Hisar and Qabadian on the north of the Amu Darya (Oxus River), Afghanistan. Dr. S.K. Banerjee (creator of Humayun Badshah) accepted Humayun was the main official among the five noted rulers of his administration to have effectively extended the lines this far west and his undertakings far supplanted that of his replacements. Humayun had achieved the accomplishment in union with the nearby clans.

7. Attack of Kalinjar (1531): The fort of Kalinjar was a fortress of the Hindu Chandel lords and throughout the hundreds of years stayed a secure hindrance to numerous intruders. Humayun first attacks the fort in 1529, a couple of days in the wake of recuperating from his perilous fever, conceivably to satisfy his father and honour the more established official's token of marking his own life in the ritual that was the exchange of sickness. In any case, Babur's weakening wellbeing and in the end basic condition compel him to pull out halfway.

In 1531, a year after his crowning ritual, with a psyche to deal with this incomplete business, Humayun attacks the fortification again and albeit the fort stays empty, the attack brings about the accommodation of an amazing and antiquated Rajput family, acquiring the second Gurkani sovereign riches, political mileage and renown. Kalinjar consequently turns into a grandee of the Gurkhani domain with the Chandel lord, theorized to have paid 6,720 tolas of gold as a piece of the arrangement.

8. Battle of Dadhra (1532): Mahmud Lodi a relative of the discarded Afghan lord Ibrahim Lodi and an amazing Afghan warlord positioned in what is currently the present-day Indian province of Bihar envious of ousting the Gurkani from Hindustan and bringing back the supremacy of the Pashutan Afghans dispatches an unexpected intrusion infiltrating some degree into Gurkhani region – under his order an enormous and incredible Afghan alliance of aristocrats and officers motivated for the sake of public honor.

Humayun quickly moves to counter the danger and unequivocally squashes Mahumud's desires at the battle of Dadhra. Crushed once before by Babur in the battle of Ghagra, this is Mahumud's second and last loss – this direct ahead one stops toward hear a lot of Mahmud Lodi.

9. Attack of Chunar (1532): Known during the hour of Humayun as the way to Bengal and Bihar, the fortification of Chunar is accepted to have been a fairly unconquerable fortress arranged as it was on a precarious slope with great vantage point every which way.

In 1532, soon after the triumph of Dadhra, and potentially because of the Afghan Sher Shah's binds with Mahmud of Bihar, Humayun assaults the fort for a time of four months, then, at that point, after learning of an inevitable attack of his domains, this time from Gujarat, hurriedly closes a truce: Sher Shah is to be a vassal and supply the majestic armed force with an unexpected of 500 troopers under the order of a child.

10. Battle of Bhojpur (1534): Humayun's brother by marriage, Muhammad Zaman Mirza, a Timurid respectable and leader alongside Muhammad Sultan Mirza, said to be a cousin of his, defies his administration and makes distress in the realm yet Humayun rapidly manages the circumstance. He overcomes Zaman Mirza in the battle of Bhojpur then, at that point, detains the offenders and sentences them to be dazed. Zaman Mirza, in any case, escapes and joins Bhadur Shah of Gujarat. Humayun had acquitted his family members on their first disobedience.

11. Triumph of Malwa and Gujarat (1535-36): For a drawn-out period of time Humayun fiddles with discretionary moves to forestall a full-scale battle between his Gurkani domain and the Sultanate of Gujarat under the standard of Bahadur Shah. He gives a valiant effort to keep up with cordial binds with the official of Gujarat and in the process ignores a minor attack which is rapidly and viably managed by his irritates Hindal and Askari in the battle of Mandrayal, particularly the inclusion of Tartar Khan (a child of Allaudin Lodi, a sibling of Ibrahim Lodi, and a hazardous actor to the privileged position of Delhi) and as an indication of his generosity requests the arrival of the defiant Zaman Mirza, a political exile in the court of Bhadur.

In any case, the Gujarati Sultan's refusal to agree prompts Humayun in 1535 to dispatch a full-scale war. The effective military mission wins the Gurkani huge lots of domains in present-day focal Gujarat yet Humayun's utilization of animal power and blunder of managerial issues by Askari prompts their misfortune right away a year after.

12. Second attack of Chunar and intrusion of Bengal (1537-38): Concerned over his vassal Sher Shah's goal-oriented extension strategies and developing danger to the Gurkani domain, Humayun blockades and vanquishes the stronghold of Chunar inside a range of a half year.

The securing is an admirable accomplishment of his vocation, despite the fact that Humayun doesn't acquire much as far as abundance as the willy Sur has effectively moved his depository out of the stronghold. Then, at that point, after a year trying to restore Bengal's arranged ruler, Sultan Ghiyasuddin Mahmud, and squash the Afghan danger of Sher Shah, Humayun sets out on the intrusion of Bengal, possessing her capital city, Gaur, absent a lot of exertion.

He goes through eight months in the district potentially to keep Sur from recovering back the domain, during which time infection and affliction pulverizes his military. Near 1539 learning of his relative Hindal's renunciation and insubordination, Humayun orders an overall retreat for his capital in Agra, posting Gaur with a handpicked unexpected of 5,000 warriors. Sher Shah has every one executed on retaking Gaur after his triumph at Chausa.

13. Battle of Chausa (1539): Aware of the debilitated condition of the Gurkani armed force and Hindal's uprising, the consistently mindful Afghan Sher Shah finally decides to stop Humayun's re-visitation of Agra at the area of Chausa in present-day Bihar – up until  Sher Shah had depended on guerrilla and defensive tactics.

The Gurkanis and Afghans go head to head for a very long time both reluctant to start a full-scale assault. The Afghans exhausted of one more loss and the Gurkanis drained in strength and drained in energy by the hotness and malarial environment. They have effectively lost an impressive number from infection during their control of Gaur.

Aware of the wretched condition of his military, Humayun endeavors to arrange a ceasefire with Sher Shah who now in more grounded position plays with his representatives and recommendations. The stop closes three months after at 12 PM with a three-pronged shock assault Sur dispatches on the ill-equipped Gurkanis, slaughtering them in their rest.

The unexpected assault and overwhelming regularly expressed to be because of the carelessness and departure of Zaman Mirza, Humayun's defiant brother by marriage who is accepted to have deserted his post as the leader of the night watch. Humayun had exonerated the insubordinate administrator a third time, potentially at the command of his sister.

14. Battle of Kannuj (1540): Back in Agra, anxious to retaliate for his loss at Chausa and very much aware hardly anything much remaining parts of his own veteran powers, Humayun begs his sibling Kamran to rent him his multitude of 20,000 battle-solidified fighters.

Kamran beginning acknowledges however on the condition he is to be the incomparable authority. Humayun rejects Kamran's proposition on the grounds of lost eminence. The exchanges proceed for a very long time bearing no outcomes till Kamran debilitated from a strange disease of the digestive system at last surrenders 3,000 of his assistants prior to getting once again to Kabul however not prior to blaming Humayun for plotting to have him harmed.

Compelled to developed a combatable number to counter Sher Shah's battle-tried Afghans, Humayun hurriedly figures out how to scrape up men from an unpracticed stock and walks for Kannuj, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Arriving at the banks of the Ganges in the locale of Kannuj in May 1540, the Gurkanis cross the stream and set up their shelters inverse the Afghan place to stay. Be that as it may, surprising downpours flood their camp on fifteenth May 1540 and compels them to consider moving to higher grounds. Notwithstanding, with Sur's powers nearby, Haider Mirza (Humayun's cousin and president of the Gurkani armed force on this event) recommends organizing military showings (troop developments) to test Sur's response and covering the relocation.

On May seventeenth 1540, with the initiation of the primary showing the two armed forces are immediately brought into battle. The Afghans start their attack without any attempt at being subtle with composed assaults on the Gurkani focus, left and right flanks, step by step pushing them back and in the long run including them from all sides prompting huge turns around and eventually their course.

The incomparable administrator of the Gurkani armed force on the day is recorded to be Haider Mirza (Humayun is accepted to not have effectively taken part, debilitated by fantasies). The Afghans in the end win the day by applying the Tulghama development – a tactical hostile created by Babur fourteen years prior.

15. Attack of Bhakkar and Sewan, Sindh (1541): After his loss at Kannuj and ejection from power Humayun escapes to Lahore with plans of advancing toward Badakhshan his previous fief. However, his sibling Kamran goes against his move in dread that by his right as sovereign he might supplant his hold over Kabul.

In a lot more grounded position than Humayun at the stage, Kamran bars Humayun from wandering anyplace close to Kabul or its area compelling him to find another home in the district of Sindh, present-day Pakistan. Prompting his intrusion of Husen Arghun's territories – the head of a second tribe of Timurids (removed by Babur from Kabul before).

Humayun will likely cause Husen to submit by assaulting his fort at Bhakkar and Sewan (Sindh, Pakistan), notwithstanding, Husen's burned earth strategy, mass renunciations and furious opposition from the Arghun armed forces powers Humayun to pull out from Sewan and lose Bhakkar promptly after its catch. Likewise right now, he comes to know about Husen's partnership with Kamran (Husen marries his little girl to Kamran in this manner the two becomes parents in law).

16. Catch of Jun, Sindh (1542): Reinforced by the Rajput Rana Prasad of Umerkot (Sindh, Pakistan) and his Hindu partners, (a ruler he meets during his exile and from whom gets both asylum and military guide), Humayun endeavors to indeed bring Husen Arghun under his sway and is fruitful in catching the region of Jun, a spot that is expressed to have existed on the Indus Delta, at a six days walk away from the city of Thatta (Sindh, Pakistan). Nonetheless, discords break out in the camp with Rana Prasad and his Hindu partners abandoning over an unaddressed fight with a Gurkani respectable.

17. Battle of Haji-Khan, Sindh (1542): Commencing soon after the renunciation of the Rana and his Hindu partners, the battle of Haji-Khan is theorized to have been a hard-battled challenge between Humayun's excess powers and the multitude of Husen Arghun – validated by the demise of one Ali ask who is said to have died with his whole unforeseen.

The lost battle is followed again by a second assault by Husen in the region of Jun, this time with gunboats where the two sides experience weighty losses however dispirits Humayun's aristocrats more, who start to surrender to Husen. Eventually a truce occurs in which Husen desires Humayun to leave his region for Khandhar, as his case is a lost one. Humayun presumably broken right now for his keeping series of mishaps since Chausa, acknowledges and leaves Sindh, unharassed by the foe.

18. Attack of Khandar (1545): Returning from Persia went with a 14,000 in number Persian armed force under the order of Prince Murad, child of Shah Tahmasp, (the military is generally for the catch of Khandhar) Humayun blockades the braced city of Khandhar for a time of forty days, driving the post inside to in this manner submit. He then, at that point, detains his second sibling Askari (legislative head of Khandhar) for plotting to have him captured during his exile.

19. Battle of Guzargh (October 1545): In the primary experience among Humayun and Kamran, once fortified as siblings now harsh foes, Humayun's devout leniency and his demonstration of excusing both grave and modest offenses win him the day. Aristocrats and troopers faithful to Kamran desert their ruler for Humayun who wisely exculpates them, fuses them into the majestic armed force and advances them. Kamran escapes Kabul in the front of late evening learning of Humayun's bloodless triumph, permitting him to secure Kabul.

20. Attack of Qila-I-Zafar, Badakshan (1546): Humayun potentially blockades Qila-I-Zafar, a fortress in the area of Badakhshan to make its innate ruler Suleiman Mirza, acknowledge his power and promise his devotion. The demonstration of solidarity probably planned to make him submit. Sulaiman was Humayun's cousin and instated as leader of Badakhshan by Babur after Humayun as a ruler had would not get back to the forlorn station. Humayun as well, during his crowning ordinance, had permitted Suleiman to remain leader of the area and proceeded with similar arrangement after his return from Persia.

21. Attack of Kabul (1546): Humayun experiences a sickness of two months during which time his relative Kamran figures out how to sneak inside the city of Kabul and kill its matured lead representative Muhammad Ali, (Maham's sibling and Humayun's maternal uncle). Assuming responsibility for Kabul again, Kamran leaves on a binge of murders and carries out abominations against the groups of the aristocrats who abandoned him for Humayun in the battle of Guzargh.

Recuperating from his ailment, Humayun assaults the city of Kabul toward the finish of winter. During the attack happens the episode of Kamran uncovering Humayun's child Akbar on the battlements to forestall his dad's cannons fire. Humayun eventually takes the city after a few grisly experiences.

22. Battle against the Uzbeks (1549): During his reign in Kabul. Humayun drives an endeavor to vanquish the tough clans of Uzbeks of neighboring locales however is compelled to leave the victory and on second thought experience weighty causalities on account of the Uzbeks – the disappointment emerging from unsteadiness in the regal family, one of his brother by marriage, a Uzbek honorable, takes to abandoning him after understanding the conflict is coordinated against his kin, while Kamran's (exonerated by Humayun a couple of months prior) nonattendance in the mission convinces a significant number of the aristocrats to set out back toward Kabul, in dread the ruler may again have overseen the city and was rebuffing their families.

23. Struggle at the Qibchag defile(1550): Essentially a pitched commitment among Humayun and Kamran, something like presumably Kabul in which Humayun gets an awful head wound that later leaves him flabbergasted. The edge of his adversary, a trooper of Kamran, had struck his brow causing it to drain without (in any capacity) cutting his cap and turban. The injury is said to have been like the one Babur had once gotten. Both Humayun and Babur may almost certainly have worn a chain mail coif.

24. Battle of Charikaran (1550): Humayun built up by the Badakhshani powers of Suleiman Mirza, prepared up and put in his administration in a brief time frame by Haram Begum (Suleiman's significant other and a considerable woman known her tactical capacities), overcomes the powers of Kamran in a pitched battle – draining the ruler's powers of many experienced officials and fighters. 25. Battle of Tangayha Pass (1551): In the final battle fought between Kamran and Humayun, Kamran leads a night assault but after initial success is defeated by the imperial forces. However, for the Gurkani family, the outcome is a black day for the death of Hindal, Humayun’s youngest and most beloved brother – the same rebellious prince who had been instrumental for Humayun’s defeat at Chausa with his rebellion and desertion yet thereafter had remained loyal to the very end.

Hindal is said to have been severed from the armpit by the blade of a soldier of Kamran – who also is also known to have expressed his grief. Two years later (1553) Kamran is finally captured and blinded, a common punishment for treason in the medieval age.

26. Battle of Machiwara (1555): With his position now secure and his forces strong to contest the Afghans of Hindustan, Humayun embarks on his reconquest of Hindustan on the 15th of November, 1554.

He rapidly descends on Punjab conquering Peshawar, Rothas and Lahore in present-day Pakistan and Jallandhar and Dibalpur in present-day Punjab, India in the year 1555. Then sends a military detachment under his loyal sword arm Baihram Beg to capture Sirhind (Punjab, India). Baihram arrives near sunset and finds a 30,000 Afghan army blocking his path.

In spite of being heavily outnumbered the Gurkani detachment gives battle and successfully routes the larger Afghan army at a fishermen’s village on the banks of the river Sutlej known as Machiwara and captures Sirhind – the battle is said to have been won by the use of incendiary projectiles that accidentally set fire to the village illuminating the gathered Afghans in the dark.

27. Battle of Sirhind (22 June 1555): Sikander Sur, successor and nephew of Sher Shah Sur confronts the Gurkani garrison at Sirhind with an army of 1,00,000. Humayun arrives in June to reinforce the garrison with all available units at hand and takes to strengthen Sirhind’s defences for a month while sporadic combats occur between the Gurkhanis and the Afghans.

On 22nd June, one such combat accidentally develops into a full-scale battle leading to the defeat and route of the Afghans who suffer even greater losses during their retreat. Sikander Sur flees for the Himalayas abandoning Delhi – allowing Humayun to reenter his city of Din-Panah on the 23rd of July, 1555, ending his fifteen years of exile.






                                                                                                                    

*This Question is a part of previous year paper gk questions on Medieval History of India.

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