What is Ancient School of Law?

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    Pre-Historic Period-Question 7

Daily Online General Knowledge Quiz:Previous year paper gk questions with answers in English.7.What is Ancient School of Law?Indian Philosophy mentions about many

Daily Online General Knowledge Quiz:Previous year paper gk questions with answers and explanation in English on Indian History of Pre-Historic Period.

7.What is the ancient school of law?
A.The Sociological school
B.The Historical school
C.The analytical School
D.The Philosophical school

The Philosophical school



🔑Key Points

✔ In India Philosophy emerged as a question into the mystery of life and its existence.

✔ Indian Philosophy mentions about many traditions of philosophical believes that arose in the Indian subcontinent.

✔  Above centuries, India’s intellectual research of truth has come to be represented by six systems of philosophy. These are known as Vaishesika, Nyaya, Samkhya, Yoga, Purva Mimansa and Vedanta or Uttara Mimansa.

o These six systems of philosophy are said to have been established by philosophers Konada, Gotama, Kapila, Patanjali, Jaimini and Vyasa, respectively. These philosophies still aid scholarly discourse in the country.

✔ These six systems of philosophy were developed over many generations with contributions made by individual thinkers.

Orthodox Schools of Indian Philosophy

Orthodox (astika) schools, originally called sanatana dharma, are together referred as Hinduism in modern times. The ancient Vedas are their source and scriptural authority. Hinduism consists of six systems of philosophy & theology.

✔ Samkhya (Kapila): Samkhya is the oldest of the orthodox philosophical systems, and it suggests that everything in reality starts from purusha (self, soul or mind) and prakriti (matter, creative agency, energy).

o Purush cannot be modified or altered but prakriti brings change in all things.

✔ Yoga (Patanjali): Yoga literally means the union of two principal entities. Yogic techniques control body, mind & sense organs, thus considered as a means of achieving freedom or mukti.

o This freedom could be achieved by practising self-control (yama), observation of rules (niyama), fixed postures (asana), breath control (pranayama), choosing an object (pratyahara) and fixing the mind (dharna), focusing on the chosen object (dhyana) and complete detachment from self, merging the mind and the object (Samadhi).

 o Yoga acknowledges the existence of God as a teacher and guide.

✔ Nyaya (Gautama Muni): Nyaya Philosophy states that nothing is acceptable unless it is in agreement with reason and experience (scientific approach). Nyaya is regarded as a technique of logical thinking.

o Nyaya Sutras say that there are four means of attaining valid knowledge: perception, inference, comparison, and verbal testimony.

✔ Vaisheshika (Kanada): The basis of the school's philosophy is that all objects in the physical universe are shortened to a finite number of atoms and Brahman is considered as the basic force that causes consciousness in these atoms.

o Vaisheshika system is considered as the realistic and objective philosophy of universe.

o The reality according to this philosophy has many bases or categories which are substance, attribute, action, genus, distinct quality and inherence.

o Vaisheshika thinkers believe that all objects of the universe are composed of five elements–earth, water, air, fire and ether.

o They believe that God is the guiding principle. The living beings were rewarded or punished according to the law of karma, based on actions of merit and demerit.

o The Vaisheshika and Nyaya schools eventually merged because of their closely related metaphysical theories (Vaisheshika only accepted perception and inference as sources of valid knowledge).

✔ Purva Mimamsa (Jaimini): This philosophy encloses the Nyaya-vaisheshika systems and insists the concept of valid knowledge.

✔ According to Purva Mimamsa, Vedas are eternal and acquires all knowledge.

o According to Mimamsa philosophy Vedas are eternal and acquires all knowledge, and religion means the completion of duties prescribed by the Vedas.

o It says that the essence of the Vedas is dharma. By the execution of dharma one earns merit which leads one to heaven after death.

✔ Vedanta: The Vedanta, or Uttara Mimamsa, school concentrates on the philosophical teachings of the Upanishads (mystic or spiritual contemplations within the Vedas), rather than the Brahmanas (instructions for ritual and sacrifice). The school separated into six sub-schools, each interpreting the texts in its own way and producing its own series of sub-explanations:

o Advaita (Adi Shankara): It states that both the individual self (Atman) and Brahman are the same, and knowing this difference causes liberation.

o Visishtadvaita (Ramanuja): It believes that all diversity is comprised to a unified whole.

o Dvaita (Madhvacharya): It says Brahman and Atman as two different entities, and Bhakti as the route to eternal salvation.

o Dvaitadvaita (Nimbarka): It states that the Brahman is the highest reality, the controller of all.

o Shuddhadvaita (Vallabhacharya): It states that both God and the individual self are the same, and are not different.

o Achintya Bheda Abheda (Chaitanya Mahaprabhu): It emphasizes that the individual self (Jivatman) is both different and not different from Brahman.

Unorthodox Schools of Indian Philosophy

Schools that do not accept the authority of Vedas are by definition unorthodox (nastika) systems. The following schools belong to heterodox schools of Indian Philosophy.

✔ Charvaka (Brihaspati): Charvaka is a materialistic, confusing and atheistic school of thought.

o According to Charvaka there is no other world. Hence, death is the end of humans & pleasure is the ultimate object in life.

o It is also known as the Lokayata Philosophy-the philosophy of masses.

✔ Buddhist philosophy (Siddhartha Gautama): Buddhism is a non-theistic philosophy whose principles are not especially concerned with the existence or nonexistence of God. Buddha considered the world as full of misery and considered a man’s duty is to to seek liberation from this painful world. He strongly blamed blind faith in the traditional scriptures like the Vedas.

✔ Jain philosophy (Mahavira): A basic principle is anekantavada, the idea that reality is perceived differently from different points of view, and that no single point of view is fully true.

o According to Jainism, only the Kevalins, those who have infinite knowledge, can know the true answer, and that all others would only know a part of the answer.



                                                                                                                    

*This Question is a part of previous year paper gk questions on .

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