Harappa situated on banks of river?

Previous Year Paper GK Questions and Answers-Harappa

 

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    Pre-Historic Period-Question 12

Daily Online General Knowledge Quiz:Previous year paper gk questions with answers in English.12. Harappa is situated on the bank of which river?
A. Ravi
B. Sindhu

Daily Online General Knowledge Quiz:Previous year paper gk questions with answers and explanation in English on Indian History of Pre-Historic Period.

Q12. Harappa is situated on the bank of which river?
A. Ravi
B. Sindhu
C. Yamuna
D. Jhelum

Ravi

Note:According to ancient history traced to Vedas, the Ravi River was known as Iravati.The Ravi was known as Purushni or Iravati to Indians in Vedic times and as Hydraotes to the Ancient Greeks.

🔑Key Points

✔The Harappa site was first briefly excavated by Sir Alexander Cunningham in 1872-73, after 2 decades brick robbers carried off the visible remains of the city. He found an Indus seal of unknown origin.

✔The first extensive excavations at Harappa were started by Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni in 1920.

Sir John Hubert Marshall led an excavation campaign in 1921-1922, during which he discovered the ruins of the city of Harappa.

✔By 1931, the Mohenjo-daro site had been mostly excavated by Marshall and Sir Mortimer Wheeler. By 1999, over 1,056 cities and settlements of the Indus Civilization were located.

✔The Harappan Civilisation has its earliest roots in cultures such as that of Mehrgarh, approximately 6000 BC. The two greatest cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, emerged circa in 2600 BC along the Indus River valley in Punjab and Sindh.

✔Harappa is located in eastern Punjab province, eastern Pakistan.

✔It lies on the left bank of a now dry course of the Ravi River, west-southwest of the city of Sahiwal, about 100 miles (160 km) southwest of Lahore.

✔Figurines and finds in graves show that Harappans of both sexes wore jewellery: hair fillets, bead necklaces and bangles for men; bangles, earrings, rings, anklets, belts made of strings of beads, pendants, chokers and numerous necklaces for women, as well as elaborate hairstyles and headdresses.

✔It is the assumption that the Harappan people worshipped a Mother goddess symbolizing fertility.

✔A few Indus valley seals displayed swastika sign which were there in many religions, especially in Indian religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.

✔The most unique feature of the Harappan Civilization was the development of urban centres.

Mohenjodaro is the most well-known site of Harappan Civilization.

✔Structure of 'Great Bath' suggested that it was meant for some kind of special ritual bath. The Lower Town was also walled.

✔Generally,in Harappan cities, houses were either one or two storeys high, with rooms built around a courtyard.

✔Most houses had a separate bathing area, and some had wells to supply water. Many of these cities had covered drains.

✔Harappan Seals were made of Steatite which is a kind of soft stone. Namely terracotta, gold, agate, ivory and faience was also used.

✔Seals were utilized to make a fixing, or positive engraving while doing trade. Sealings were utilized as a part of antiquated circumstances for exchange.

✔They would be made on earthenware production or the mud labels used to seal the rope around bundles of goods.

Fishscales, interlocking circles, pipal leaves etc. were the patterns seen on the Harappan pots.

✔The main occupation of the Harappan people was agriculture.

✔The Harappans grew lentils and other pulses (peas, chickpeas, green gram, black gram). Their main staples were wheat and barley, which were presumably made into bread and perhaps also cooked with water as a gruel or porridge.

✔At the top are fillets of hammered gold that would have been worn around the forehead.

✔The other ornaments include bangles, chokers, long pendant necklaces, rings, earrings, conical hair ornaments, and broaches. Such ornaments were never buried with the dead, but were passed on from one generation to the next.

✔The main sources of copper exploited by the Harappans are believed to be Baluchistan and Afghanistan, in the region west of Indus. Animal worship was another typical feature of Harappan religious belief. Worship of common animal light elephants, rhinoceros, tigers and Bulls was quite prevalent.

✔Worship of the naga deity or Serpent worship and Bull worship were familiar trend.

✔The Harappans used to built strong boats.

✔Many scholars believe that the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization was caused by climate change.

✔The eastward shift of monsoons may have reduced the water supply, forcing the Harappans of the Indus River Valley to migrate and establish smaller villages and isolated farms.

✔Some experts believe the drying of the Saraswati River, which began around 1900 BCE, was the main cause for climate change, while others conclude that a great flood struck the area.

✔Some other experts believe that invasion by foreign tribes like the Aryans might have led to the collapse of the Indus Valley civilization.

Important Findings of Harappa site are:

Pottery.

• Chert blades.

• Copper or bronze implements.

• Terracotta figurines.

• Seals and sealing.

• Cubical Limestone weights.

• Faience Slag.

• Sandstone statues of Human anatomy.

• Bullock cart.

• Granaries.

• Coffin burials.

• Marine shells.


                                                                                                                    

*This Question is a part of previous year paper gk questions on .

References

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2.NCERT Text Books

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